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Beginners Guide To Start A Massachusetts LLC

Beginners Guide To Start A Massachusetts LLC

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Beginners Guide To Start A Massachusetts LLC

If you are thinking of starting a business in Massachusetts, you will need to decide what legal structure to use. A Limited Liability Company (LLC) is one popular option because it offers the benefits of both a corporation and a sole proprietorship or partnership.

This guide will walk you through the process of setting up an LLC in Massachusetts. We’ll cover everything from choosing a name to filing your paperwork with the state.

Related: How to start a business in Massachusetts

What is an LLC?

The Limited Liability Company (LLC) is a business structure (also called a business entity) for businesses starting in Massachusetts.  The LLC provides personal liability protection and has the potential to save money on taxes.

Unlike a sole proprietorship or partnership, where the small business owner can be held personally liable for lawsuits against the business, the LLC is a separate legal entity that protects the business owner’s personal assets. So, if the LLC is sued, the owner’s personal assets are usually protected.

Besides liability protection, the Limited Liability Company provides several other benefits over the sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation because of the multiple tax options, ease of administration, and management flexibility.

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Steps to Form a Massachusetts LLC

Step 1: Choose an LLC Name

The first step in forming a Massachusetts Limited Liability Company is to make sure the name you want is available. Each LLC’s name must be distinguishable from other entity names registered in the state, and the Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth Corporations Division makes it easy to do a Massachusetts LLC name search so you can quickly verify whether your LLC name is available. 

Additionally, the name of the LLC must include one of the following phrases or abbreviations at the end of the business name:

  • Limited Liability Company
  • Limited Company
  • L.L.C.
  • LLC
  • L.C.
  • LC

A comma may be used after the business name and before the designator.  “Cape Cod Crafts LLC” and “Cape Cod Crafts, LLC” are both acceptable.

If there is a name you want, but you are not ready to register the LLC, you can file the Application for Reservation of Name. The name registration will hold a name for up to 60 days.

Before finalizing your name, you may also want to see if a domain name is also available to have a matching website address.

Step 2: Appoint a Massachusetts Resident Agent

In Massachusetts, every LLC will need to designate a resident agent (called a registered agent in many states). A resident agent is simply an individual or company with a Massachusetts street address who will be responsible for any legal correspondence. This commonly includes the receipt of legal documents, such as lawsuit notifications, on behalf of the business.

While many LLC owners opt to fulfill this role themselves, some owners choose to hire resident agent services like Northwest Registered Agent. Utilizing a resident agent service ensures that your LLC adheres to state requirements while offering an added layer of convenience and confidentiality since the owner’s personal address isn’t disclosed in public records.

Related: What is a Massachusetts resident agent?

Step 3: File the Massachusetts LLC Certificate of Organization

The paperwork to officially create an LLC in Massachusetts is called the Certificate of Organization. To submit the paperwork, either file online through the Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth website or download and mail the Certificate of Organization PDF (Form D).

Related: How to fill out the Massachusetts Certificate of Organization

When filling out the Certificate of Organization, there are a few sections that may be challenging to answer if this is your first time setting up an LLC. To help you get started right, let’s go over a few of these sections.

LLC Address

2a. Location of the principal office: In this section, enter the street address, city, state, and zip code of the initial principal office.  This address can be the LLC’s physical address, or it can be the address where the business records are stored.  You may not use a PO Box for the designated office.

2b. Address where records are kept: If the records of the LLC will be kept at a different address, enter that information in section 2b.  If the address is the same as the principal office, click on the “Same Address as” tab to copy the address.

Business Description

Provide some basic information about what the business does.  You will need to provide some basic information; otherwise, the LLC filing will be rejected.  If you want to keep the business purpose more open-ended, you can add “and engage in any lawful business activity for which a Limited Liability Company may be organized in Massachusetts” in addition to the original purpose statement.

Related: How to answer the business purpose statement.

Latest Date of Dissolution

This section is optional if you intend the business to exist forever, which most businesses do.  If you have a specific end date in mind (typically used for investment-related businesses), choose a dissolution date.

Manager Information

In a Manager-Managed LLC, the members hire a manager to run the LLC, similar to a CEO of a corporation.  It’s more common for an LLC to be Member-Managed. If so, you can probably leave this section blank.

Authorized Signers for Real Property

If the LLC is involved with buying and selling real property, such as real estate or vehicles, enter the name and address of all individuals who are authorized to sign these types of documents.  If the LLC is not involved in real property transactions, skip this section.

If you are worried about making a mistake when forming your LLC, or just don't want to deal with filling out state paperwork, an LLC formation service will help guide you through the process. My top recommended services include:

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What To Do Aftering Starting A Massachusetts LLC

Once the LLC has been formed, there are a few additional steps to take care of. Below is a list of the most common tasks.

Prepare a Massachusetts LLC Operating Agreement

The operating agreement is a document that governs the framework of an LLC.  This document covers items like ownership rights, LLC member responsibilities, how profits and losses are distributed, and more.

Most states (including Massachusetts) do not require an LLC to have an operating agreement, but it is still worth considering. Without an operating agreement:

  • The LLC could be subject to generic state rules that may be detrimental in the event of a lawsuit
  • Member’s personal liability protection may be diminished
  • Members may not have a full understanding of their roles and responsibilities, which could lead to costly disputes in the future

Related: Massachusetts operating agreement template

Obtain an EIN

If the LLC will hire employees or is owned by more than one member, an EIN is required. 

The EIN or Employer Identification Number (also referred to as a Federal Employer Identification Number, FEIN, or Federal Tax ID Number) is a unique 9-digit tax identification number assigned to a business by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Similar to a social security number for an individual, the EIN identifies business entities for tax purposes.

Related: How to apply for an EIN

Open an LLC Bank Account

Opening a bank account for your LLC is important for liability protection as the account separates the business’s funds from the member’s personal funds.

Several documents will be needed to open a business bank account, such as:

  • A banking resolution is a document that authorizes the members to open a business bank account on behalf of the LLC.
  • Copies of the original business formation paperwork from the state showing the creation of the LLC.
  • State ID of the members.
  • In some circumstances, a Massachusetts Certificate of Good Standing may be needed to prove the LLC is active and in good standing with the state.

Related: How to Open a Business Bank Account for your LLC

Apply for Business Licenses and Permits

Depending on what your business does and where it is located, there will likely be various business licenses and permits needed before starting your business. Some common registrations include:

  • Business license: Some cities require businesses to obtain licensing before they can start. Often, these are supplied by the City Clerk’s office where the business is located.
  • Professional license: Certain services in Massachusetts, such as barbershops, accountants, salons, and others, must be licensed.
  • Sales tax permit: A sales tax permit from the Massachusetts Department of Revenue is necessary to sell products and certain services.

Related: What business licenses are needed in Massachusetts?

File the Massachusetts LLC Annual Report

LLCs are required to file an annual report with the Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth Corporations Division.  The cost of the Annual Report is $500 by mail and slightly more when filing online.

Related: How to File a Massachusetts LLC Annual Report

File the Beneficial Owner Information Report

Beginning in 2024, any individual who owns at least 25% or has “substantial control” of an LLC or corporation in Massachusetts or any other state must file the Beneficial Ownership Information (BOI) form with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). BOI reports are filed electronically through FinCEN’s website.

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Massachusetts LLC FAQs

How much does it cost to start an LLC in Massachusetts?

There is a filing fee of $500 with the Secretary of the Commonwealth to start an LLC in Massachusetts.

Is there an annual fee for an LLC in Massachusetts?

Each year, an annual report and a $500 state filing fee will be due for Massachusetts LLCs.

What is the processing time to form an LLC in Massachusetts?

It normally takes 1-2 business days for the state to process the LLC paperwork for online filings, while filings made by mail can take 2-3 weeks.

Can you use a PO Box for your LLC in Massachusetts?

A PO Box can only be used as a mailing address for the LLC. A physical street address in Massachusetts must be used for the Principal Office and resident agent.

What is a Foreign Limited Liability Company?

A foreign LLC refers to an LLC that is physically operating in states outside of the state where it was formed. Physically operating means having a presence, such as having an office or employee. The LLC will need to register as a foreign LLC in each state where it plans to operate.

Related: What is a foreign LLC?

Does Massachusetts allow Professional LLCs?

Licensed occupations such as accountants, attorneys, podiatrists, physical therapists, acupuncturists, etc., have the option of filing for a Professional Limited Liability Company in Massachusetts (sometimes referred to as a Professional LLC or PLLC) instead. Filing for a PLLC is very similar to that of an LLC.

Related: What is a Professional Limited Liability Company?

Author

  • Greg Bouhl

    With over two decades as an entrepreneur, educator, and business advisor, Greg Bouhl has worked with over 2,000 entrepreneurs to help them start and grow their businesses. Fed up with clients finding and acting on inaccurate and outdated information online, Greg launched StartUp101.com to be a trusted resource for people starting a business.

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Beginners Guide To Start A Massachusetts LLC

Beginners Guide To Start A Massachusetts LLC

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